Quick Tips [short reference, not exhaustive]
Books (footnote, first time cited)
Author full name, Title (Location: Publisher, Date), ###– ###.
WIlford Kale. Hark Upon the Gale: An Illustrated History of The College of William and Mary (Norfolk, Va.: Donning Co., 1985), 12–5.
Books (footnote, later citations)
Author Last name, Title before the :, ###
Kale, Hark Upon the Gale, 45.
Author last name, Author first name. Title. Place: Publisher, year. [NOTE: indent if there is a second line]
Kale, WIlford. Hark Upon the Gale: An Illustrated History of The College of William and Mary. Norfolk, Va.: Donning Co., 1985.
Ebooks (footnote, first time cited)
Author full name, Title (Place: Publisher, year), ##, URL or database [NOTE: only use URL if not in a subscription database]
Sean M. Heuvel and Lisa L. Heuvel, The College of William and Mary in the Civil War (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company Publishers, 2013), 18–42, Ebook Central.
Lyon Gardiner Tyler, ed. The Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Charter of the College of William & Mary (Richmond: Printed by Whittet & Shepperson, 1894), 8–14, https://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001546265g.
Ebooks (footnote, later citations)
Author Last name, Title before the :, ###
Heuvel and Heuvel, College of William and Mary in the Civil War, 8–24.
Tyler, Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Charter of the College of William & Mary, 8–24.
Author last name, Author first name. Title. Place: Publisher, year, Database or URL.
Heuvel, Sean M. and Lisa L. Heuvel, The College of William and Mary in the Civil War. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company Publishers, 2013,
Tyler, Lyon Gardiner, ed., The Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Charter of the College of William & Mary. Richmond: Printed by Whittet & Shepperson, 1894, https://hdl.handle.net/2027/umn.31951001546265g.
Journal Articles (First footnote) Print & Digital
Author Full Name, "Title," Journal [vol] #, no. # (Month, Year): pages cited.
Author Full Name, "Title," Journal [vol] #, no. # (Month, Year): page cited, URL or DOI or Database [NOTe: DOI preferred, without proxy]
W. Matthew Shipman, "Shaping the Future of Studying the Past," William & Mary Alumni Magazine 69, no 3/4 (Spring, 2004): 40–1.
James S. Heller, "From Oxford to Williamsburg: Part 2 - The College of William & Mary Law School and Wolf Law Library," Legal Information Management 12, no. 4 (Dec. 2012): 291–292, doi.org/10.1017/S1472669612000655.
Journal Articles (All Later footnotes) Print & Digital
Author last name, "Title before the :," pages cited.
Shipman, "Shaping the Future of Studying the Past," 40–1.
Heller, "From Oxford to Williamsburg," 291–2.
Journal Articles (Bibliography)
Last name, First name. "Title." Journal, volume #, issue #, (Date): all pages.
Last name, First name. "Title." Journal, volume #, issue #, (Date): all pages. URL or DIO or Database
Shipman, W. Matthew. "Shaping the Future of Studying the Past," William & Mary Alumni Magazine 69, no 3/4 (Spring, 2004): 40–6.
Heller, James S. "From Oxford to Williamsburg: Part 2 - The College of William & Mary Law School and Wolf Law Library," Legal Information Management 12, no. 4 (Dec. 2012): 291–7, doi.org/10.1017/S1472669612000655.
Website (First Footnote)
"Title," Website, Accessed or last modified date, URL.
"History of William & Mary," William and Mary, accessed November 5, 2022, https://www.wm.edu/offices/deanofstudents/services/communityvalues/studenthandbook/history_of_william_and_mary/index.php.
Website (all later footnotes)
"History of William & Mary."
Website. "Title." Accessed or last modified date, URL.
William and Mary. "History of William & Mary." Accessed November 5, 2022, https://www.wm.edu/offices/deanofstudents/services
The citation and reference format you use will depend on both the citation style you are writing in (such as MLA, APA, or Chicago) and the type of source you're citing (such as a book, journal article, or film). These citation guides and manuals can get you started.
If you are citing a source that you've accessed online--even if that same source exists as a hard-copy book--you must include the URL in your citation.
There is one important exception here, and that is any text(s) you've accessed through our Blackboard site. You do not need to include URLs for these sources unless there's a URL listed in the syllabus.
When citing a URL, make sure it's the URL of the actual source, not of the search that got you to the source. Click on the pdf above for a quick tutorial of which URL you're after.
And remember to "paste special" and/or remove the hyperlink when you're including URLs in your footnotes and endnotes!
If you copy and paste any information for a footnote:
Avoid formatting problems by using the “paste special” function and pasting without any formatting; Remove hyperlink formatting (if you haven’t used paste special, right click and select remove hyperlink); Make sure you go back and correct errors, whether they’re your errors or not. I should not see titles in all caps, or titles with improper capitalization. Be sure article titles are in quotation marks. Be sure book and journal titles are italicized. Etc. It’s your responsibility to get a citation right, whether you’ve entered it yourself from start to finish or copied and pasted it from somewhere else.
Citations for images are complicated, because each image may combine the attributes of a variety of sources, such as illustrations and primary documents, and many will come from online sources. Since most historians don't use or cite images, Rampolla's guide doesn't include as much information as we might wish. But generally speaking, we're always trying to approximate the basic model of a scholarly book or article citation, which means giving readers/viewers a good sense of what something is and who produced it when and where. Here's a general guide of what each image citation should include:
Check citations before submitting
Check your work before submitting to avoid points deductions.
□ Verify that you’re using the correct citation model for footnotes or bibliography entries?
□ For footnotes, did you put authors’ first names first, separate key components of your footnote (author, title, etc.) with commas (not periods), etc.?
□ For bibliography entries, did you put authors’ last names first, separate key components of your citation (author, title, etc.), with periods (not commas), etc.?
□ Italicize your book and journal titles?
□ Include all relevant publication information for your book (city of publication: publisher, year of publication)?
□ Include the volume, issue number, and date of publication for your journal article (but not the city of publication or journal publisher)?
□ Cite the specific page number(s) you’re referring to (rather than a spread of pages)?
□ Include the full URL for all sources—books, articles, images, etc.—you’ve accessed online?
□ Did you make sure to copy and paste the URL for the article or book rather than the search you used to find the book? You’ll need to click on either the HTML or pdf version to get the correct URL.
□ Include a citation for each image?
□ Follow the image citation guidelines (see below), which ask you to include the following:
1. the author of each object/image (if known);
2. the title of each object/image (some objects, such as paintings, will have specific titles; in other cases, this might be a brief description of the object depicted and might cover points 2 and 3);
3. the type of object it is and/or material out of which it’s made (oil painting, felt hat, wooden mask, etc.);
4. the time and place of its creation/production (this might be very specific or quite general, depending on the object);
5. the place that it's currently held (in, say, a museum; you need to include the name of the museum and/or collection as well as the museum's location);
6. the place you found the object (this will typically be the URL of the website or database you used).