Always follow the instructions given by your professor when citing sources!
The outlines below are general. Individual instructors may have specific requests and instructions.
MLA Style Guide
See more examples
See the Library's MLA style guide for quick tips on citing books, articles, and websites. See the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. in print for full guidelines. A copy of this can be found at the Research & Information Desk.
Citing images in MLA style: captions and in list of works cited
In list of works cited, image taken from a website:
In list of works cited, image taken from a book:
General guidelines for figure captions
"If the caption...provides complete information about the source and the source is not cited in the text, no entry for the source in the works-cited list is necessary."
General format for work of art in list of works cited
Artist last name, first name. Title of work. Date. Medium of composition. Museum or collection where work is located, city. Source of image (complete citation for book or website, including page number, figure number, or other relevant identifier).
See below for quick tips on citing books, articles and websites in Chicago style. For detailed information, see the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., in the reference section at Z253.U69 2003.
Chicago Manual of Style
OWL at Purdue
In Chicago style, image and source information is placed in the caption below the image.
Fig. 1. Frank Lloyd Wright, Easy Chair. Oak and upholstery, 30 x 31 11/16 x 26 11/16 in. Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis. Reproduced from Jennifer Komar Olivarez, Progressive Design in the Midwest: The Purcell-Cutts House and the Prairie School Collection at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts (Minneapolis: Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 2000), 84.
(Manual 12.31-12.51, pages 484-490)
Chicago style can require either notes (footnotes or endnotes) & bibliography or the author-date system; rely on your professor for which method to use. Notes and bibliography are usually favored for the arts and humanities. The examples below are for citations in a bibliography. See the print manual or the guide linked above to format notes. Also see the print manual to format parenthetical text citations and reference list citations in the author-date system.
Sample bibliography entries
Book, one author
Last name, First name. Title. Place: Publisher, date.
Komar Olivarez, Jennifer. Progressive Design in the Midwest: The Purcell-Cutts House and the Prairie School Collection at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Minneapolis: Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 2000.
(Manual 17.26, page 649)
Book with an editor
Editor last name, First name, ed. Title. Place: Publisher, date.
Prince, Sue Ann, ed. The Old Guard and the Avant-Garde: Modernism in Chicago, 1910-1940. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.
(Manual 17.41, page 654)
Essay in a book
Author last name, First name. "Title of Essay." In Title of Book, edited by Editor first name Last name, pp-pp. Place of publication: Publisher, date.
Moser, Charlotte. "'In the Highest Efficiency': Art Training at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago." In The Old Guard and the Avant-Garde: Modernism in Chicago, 1910-1940, edited by Sue Ann Prince, 193-208. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.
(Manual 17.69, page 662)
Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume, number (year): pages.
Abrams, Ann U. "From Simplicity to Sensation: Art in American Advertising 1904-1929." Journal of Popular Culture 10 (1976): 620-628.
(Manual 17.157, page 689)
Article downloaded from a database
Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume, number (year), url.
Twombly, Robert. "Foreword: New Forms, Old Functions: Social Aspects of Prairie School Designs." Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 21, 2 (1995), http://www.jstor.org/stable/4102818.
(Manual 17.181, page 697)
Author Last name, First name [if available]. "Title of Page." Organizational publisher (date published [if available]). url (date retrieved).
Duke University Libraries. "EAA: Timeline." Emergence of Advertising in America. Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library (n.d.). http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/eaa/timeline.html (accessed August 5, 2010).
(Manual 17.237, page 714)
Ref Z1001 .H33 2000
Harner, James L. On Compiling an Annotated Bibliography. 2nd ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2000.
Shelved at Swem Library's Research Desk.
There are lots of tools that can help you format citations and bibliographies. They make the job of citation easier, but are not always 100% accurate. Double-check automatically-formatted citations before handing in papers!
RefWorks is an online citation manager. You can import and save citations to books and articles from the Library's catalog and databases, sort them into folders for specific classes and projects, plug them into research papers you write using Microsoft Word, and format them into notes and bibliographies in whatever style is required. RefWorks is a powerful tool! See our Guide to RefWorks for more information.